Haka with Weapons
The Peruperu, Tutungarahu, Whakatuwaewae are all performed with weapons.
Traditionally, they were done before battle and tohu could be read into them, according to the jumps. These haka were performed in front of their own Iwi, to the women, the young folk and the Kaumatua. The women would notice the tohu. When the jumps were performed by the taua, if the height of the jumps were not in unison, this was a tohu of impending disaster.
An offender, who had his legs down, when the rest were high in the air, was sought out reprimanded and perhaps even left behind in disgrace when the taua departed.
- Peruperu is to be performed with weapons. Hard conditioning makes the warriors physically and mentally fit. Peruperu comes for the word peru "anger", and this is how it got it´s name. Its psychological purpose is to demoralise the enemy, which no other form of haka can match. The outstanding feature of the Peruperu is the high leap off the ground, with the legs folded under.
- The Tutungarahu, is also a haka performed with weapons, but the jumping is not up and down, but rather from side to side.
- The Whakatuwaewae, is a haka with weapons, but does not have any jumping.
The Haka With Set Actions
The features of Haka with Set Actions are known for their precision and timing. Some other types of Haka done with Set Actions that are not common today are as follows -
- Haka Horuhoru were performed kneeling and deep grunting sounds were used
- Haka Rurirui were performed sitting
- Haka Pikari were performed with certain leg movements not found in others ie. shuffle
- Haka Aroakapa were performed in two or more rows facing each other - this is the common formation of today.
- Haka Porowha were performed in a square, with the ranks facing outwards, this was good if the audiences peaceful intentions were suspect.
- Haka Tutohu were performed in a wedge
The Haka Without Set Actions
- Ngeri, are short haka to stiffen the sinews and summon up the blood, but have no set movements, thereby giving the performers free rein to express themselves as they deem appropriate.
- The Manawawera, do not have set movements. In Tuhoe, they were performed at Tangihanga, Hurakohatu and Hari Mate.
- Pokeka, is a term peculiar to the tribes of Te Arawa, and are like the Manawawera, except that there is no specific occasion.
- Kaioraora, are used expressly for the venting of hatred. Every Iwi has composed them, and every Iwi has been the inspiration for them. Kaioraora literally means to eat alive. Such is the anger and the hatred of the composer, that ´she´, (in most instances, the composers of this type of haka, are women), would like to eat alive the perpetrators of the dastardly deed, that prompted the anger and the hatred.
From Pre-European days to the present, a Haka Taparahi has always been a ceremonial haka never for war, and always performed without weapons, but with set actions. After World War I, the Haka Taparahi emerged in a new and vigorous form. Haka Taparahi may express any private or public sentiment.